Cold Forming Overview and Reference Guide
Cold Forming: A Definition
By Robert Levy – CEO TFGUSA
© Copyright 2017
Cold Forming pertains to multiple processes where metal is moved / worked at room temperature by:
- Upsetting or Heading: Perpendicular Flow
- Extrusion: Parallel Flow
- Rolling: Displacing
Cold Formed Dimension Tolerances
- Upset in Dies: ± 0.004 in. (0.10 mm)
- Open Upsets: ± 0.015 in. (0.38 mm)
- Length: ± 0.020 in. (0.50 mm)
- Extruded or Sized: ± 0.002 in. (0.05 mm)
Cold Formed Surface Finishes
In General: 8 – 63 micro (0.020 – 1.6 micrometers)
Factors affecting surface finish:
- Condition of the material to be formed
- Type of cold working
- Forming lubricant
- Finish and condition of tooling
Secondary Machined Dimension Tolerances
- Diameters: ± 0.004 in. (0.10 mm)
- Length: ± 0.006 in. (0.15 mm)
- Groove Width and Depth: ± 0.004 in. (0.10 mm)
- Higher Cost: ± 0.002 in. (0.05 mm)
Secondary Grinding in Production
Common Total Tolerances: ± 0.001 in. (0.025 mm)
Obtainable Total Tolerances: ± 0.0005 in. (0.00127 mm)
Cost Savings with Cold Forming
- Material Savings
- High Production Rates
- Added Strength
- Consistent Quality: Because only good quality material can withstand cold forming
Selecting the Right Part for Cold Forming
- Economic Order Quantity: Production volume must offset set-up and tooling costs.
- Radii and Fillets: Avoid sharp corners and allow generous radii and fillets.
- Eliminate Assemblies: Choose parts that can be combined into a single cold formed
Higher Quality of Cold Formed Parts
- Strength and Wear: Increased properties due to uninterrupted grain flow.
- Impact, Fatigue, and Shear Strength: Increased due to controlled grain flow.
- Smooth, Burnished Finish: Resulting from tooling surface, eliminating some secondary machining.
We sincerely hope you found this article informative and valuable.
We welcome your comments or suggestions regarding this article
or any other subjects you would like to see us write about.
The Federal Group USA